I heard that sun exposure can cause adverse drug reactions? Some drugs can’t see the sun after taking them, so they need to "avoid the light"? Summer is coming. In order to prevent people from being inadvertently poisoned by "photosensitivity", today I will tell you what this is all about.
What is the photosensitive reaction?
Some drugs, after being taken, can cause allergic reaction of human body under the stimulation of light, which is called photosensitive reaction. Its symptoms are similar to solar dermatitis or sunburn rash, such as erythema and edema, accompanied by itching and burning pain; Or pigmentation occurs, and in severe cases there are blisters or erosive ulcers.
Photosensitive reactions include phototoxic reactions and phototoxic reactions. Phototoxic reaction has nothing to do with the autoimmune system, and can occur in anyone without incubation period. Generally, it can occur within a few minutes to a few hours after the first drug is irradiated by sunlight, mostly at the exposed site. After stopping the drug or avoiding light, the reaction can quickly subside. Photoallergic reaction is a kind of delayed allergic reaction related to the autoimmune system, which can be triggered by a small dose of light or weak sunlight. It usually occurs in a small number of allergic people, with a incubation period of 24 ~ 48 hours, and symptoms can occur all over the body, not just in the exposed parts. This kind of reaction lasts for a long time and can develop into a chronic and persistent photosensitive reaction.
What drugs can cause photosensitive reactions?
There are many drugs that can cause photosensitive reaction. Here are some common drugs.
Quinolone antibiotics: including sparfloxacin, lomefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, etc. It is clearly pointed out in the instructions of levofloxacin capsules that after exposure to sunlight or ultraviolet rays, moderate to severe photosensitive/phototoxic reactions will occur, which can be manifested as excessive sunburn reaction, so excessive exposure to light sources should be avoided. In order to reduce the adverse reactions of such drugs, it is generally recommended to take drugs every night.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: including aspirin, ibuprofen, diclofenac sodium, meloxicam, piroxicam, sulfasalazine, etc. Such drugs can cause photosensitive/phototoxic reactions, and once they occur, they should be stopped immediately.
Cardiovascular drugs: Nifedipine, Nimodipine, Amiodarone, Captopril, Benazepril, Enalapril, Indapamide, Valsartan, Losartan, etc. can cause photosensitive reaction. These drugs are generally chronic diseases and need to be taken for a long time. Therefore, patients need to strengthen safety awareness and avoid excessive sun exposure or exposure to light sources during medication.
Sulfonylurea hypoglycemic drugs: including glibenclamide, glimepiride, glipizide, etc. Such drugs can cause photo-allergic reactions. Diabetic patients should also pay attention to the adverse reactions of such drugs if they take them for a long time.
Other drugs: including tetracycline drugs (minocycline, doxycycline, etc.), sulfonamides, anti-tuberculosis drugs (pyrazinamide), digestive system drugs (ranitidine, omeprazole, pantoprazole, etc.), antidepressants (fluoxetine), retinoic acid (isotretinoin), etc.
How to prevent photosensitive reaction?
If you use the above drugs, you should pay attention to sun protection during the medication and at least 5 days after stopping the drug; Try to avoid traveling during periods of strong sunshine. In the event of a rash or skin reaction, you can immediately stop taking medicine or sunscreen, and at the same time, cold compress the red, swollen and hot parts. If the symptoms are still not relieved, go to the dermatology department in time.
Authors: The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Liu Chong, Chen Chengqun and Shi Xiangfen.
China Jiangxi Net News reporter Shen Guannan reports that the exam is not complete, but it can effectively urge lazy cancer patients. Recently, the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security issued a notice announcing the work plan for the qualification examination of professional and technical personnel in 2018. 2017 is coming. Do you have any plans for the new year?
Opportunities are often reserved for those who are prepared. Here, the reporter from Jiangxi Network in China has compiled a calendar of super-practical examinations for you in 2018, wishing everyone to become a "Kao Ba" in 2018 and win the spearhead in the examination room.
May 20: GRE test
6, 7: 2017 Teacher Qualification Interview
6th, 13th, 18th and 20th: IELTS.
6, 13, 27 and 28: TOEFL test
21st: TOEIC exam
1st, 3rd, 10th and 24th: IELTS test.
2 nd: GRE exam
4th: TOEFL test
25th: TOEIC exam
3rd, 10th, 15th and 24th: IELTS test.
3rd, 10th, 11th, 24th and 31st: TOEFL test.
April, 17th and 30th: GRE test
17th: TEM8 (TEM8)
18th: TOEIC exam
14th and 28th: GRE test
14th and 15th: Consulting Engineer (Investment)
14-17: Computer Application Level Examination
15th: TOEIC exam
15th and 21st: TOEFL test
21st: TEM-4 (TEM4)
21st and 22nd: assistant real estate agent, real estate agent.
5th and 6th: Registered Architect (Class I and Class II)
5-7 days: professional qualification of nurses
6, 12, 19 and 26: TOEFL test
12-20: Accounting (Elementary)
12th and 13th: Registered Architect (Grade I)
13th, 20th and 27th: GRE test
19th and 20th: Qualification of supervision engineer, environmental impact assessment engineer and translation major (Grade I, II and III).
20th: TOEIC exam
26th and 27th: Health (primary and intermediate), computer technology and software (primary, intermediate and advanced)
2nd and 3rd: Professional qualification of health (primary and intermediate) and banking professionals (primary and intermediate)
2, 10, 23 and 30: TOEFL test
7-9: National College Entrance Examination
7, 15 and 29: GRE test
9th and 10th: Assistant social worker, social worker, motor vehicle inspection and maintenance engineer.
16-21: Computer Application Level Examination
16th: CET-4 and CET-6 written test (undetermined, usually the third Saturday in June).
17-23: Practitioner (practical skills, undetermined, this is the time of 2017)
23rd and 24th: registered surveyor (Grade I) and land registration agent.
24th: TOEIC exam
Late stage: senior high school entrance examination (different provinces and cities)
1, 7, 8 and 14: TOEFL test
May 5 and 15: GRE test
15th: TOEIC exam
25th: Certified Public Accountant (comprehensive stage)
25th and 26th: TOEFL test
26th: TOEIC exam
26th and 27th: Medical practitioners (comprehensive written test, undetermined, this is the time of 2017).
1, 7, 14 and 28: GRE test
2, 8, 9, 15 and 16: TOEFL test
8th and 9th: registered nuclear safety engineer, registered equipment supervisor, registered surveyors, accountant (intermediate and advanced).
15th and 16th: Architect (Grade I) and Appraiser.
23rd: TOEIC exam
12th, 21st and 26th: GRE test.
13th: Publication (primary and intermediate)
13th and 14th: real estate appraiser, assistant inspector of highway and waterway engineering, experimental tester, auctioneer (paper and pen answer), licensed pharmacist (pharmacy, traditional Chinese medicine), certified public accountant (professional stage).
13th, 14th, 20th, 27th and 28th: TOEFL.
20th: Communication (Primary, Intermediate)
20th and 21st: registered urban and rural planner, assistant real estate agent, real estate agent, registered civil engineer (geotechnical engineering, port and waterway engineering, water conservancy and hydropower engineering (5 majors)), registered public equipment engineer (3 majors), registered chemical engineer, registered environmental engineer, registered structural engineer (level 1) and certified public accountant (European test area).
21st: Registered Institution Engineer (Grade II), Audit (Junior, Intermediate and Advanced) and Statistics (Junior, Intermediate and Advanced)
27th and 28th: Professional qualifications of cost engineer (intermediate), registered surveyor (ships and offshore facilities, fishing vessels), registered safety engineer (intermediate) and banking professionals (primary and intermediate).
28th: TOEIC exam
3, 18 and 23: GRE test
3rd and 4th: Economics (primary and intermediate level) and translation professional qualification (first, second and third level).
4th, 10th, 11th, 17th, 24th and 25th: TOEFL test.
10th and 11th: registered fire engineer (level I), computer technology and software (primary, intermediate and advanced), tax agent.
17th and 18th: auctioneer (actual operation), tender (final exam)
17-20: Computer Application Level Examination
25th: TOEIC exam
1, 8, 15 and 16: TOEFL test
2, 14 and 22: GRE test
October: written national civil service examination (undetermined, this is the time of 2017)
15th: CET-4 and CET-6 (undetermined, usually the third Saturday in December)
15-20: Computer Application Level Examination
23-25: National Postgraduate Entrance Examination (undetermined, this is the time of 2017).
16th: TOEIC exam
Original title: Lingao Beautiful Scenery Come to Guyin Waterfall to enjoy the spectacular scenery formed by force of nature.
New Hainan Client, Nanhai Net February 2 news (Reporter Lin Wenquan) "When you stand under Guyin Waterfall, surrounded by thin water droplets, under the big banyan tree, the sun passes through the forest leaves, and the fog in the water suddenly becomes a golden beam, hitting the water and the jungle … This is not just a trip, but more like a baptism of the soul." Ms. Xie, a tourist, shared her wonderful feelings about her trip to Lingao. In recent years, Guyin Waterfall has become a punch-in point for many tourists in online celebrity, which has also promoted the development of local economy.
Guyin Waterfall. Photo courtesy of Lingao County Rong Media Center
Guyin Waterfall is located near the west of Juren Village, Huangtong Town, north of Lingao. As a minority scenic spot, there are few people and beautiful scenery here, and the surrounding tropical plants are rich, and the ancient banyan trees are magnificent. According to local villagers, Guyin Waterfall has the reputation of "Three Tanks and Nine Songs", because it is located in Juren Village, and there is another one named Juren Waterfall. It is understood that the waterfall is caused by the drop of Pingchuan, with a drop of 20 meters, a width of 20 meters and a width of 400 square meters. There are many strange rocks around it, with different shapes and various shapes.
Enter from the gate of the scenic spot and walk for more than ten minutes to see the waterfall. Along the way in full of green, flowing water gurgled and butterflies shuttled freely. The waterfall poured down from the top of the mountain, forming a spectacular sight. The background of the waterfall is dense tropical rain forest and rolling mountains, which makes people feel like they are in a vivid picture.
During the tour, tourists can not only enjoy the beautiful scenery of Guyin Waterfall, but also experience the local folk culture and food. In the villages around Guyin Waterfall, you can learn about the traditional Li culture and customs, such as Li costumes, songs and dances, food and so on. In addition, you can also taste farm dishes with Lingao characteristics, such as wild vegetables, bamboo rice, grilled fish and so on.
When the Spring Festival comes, you can not only enjoy the beautiful scenery, but also watch the volleyball match. It is reported that from February 18th to 20th, the 2024 Hainan (Lingao) Trade Union Elite Volleyball Tournament will be held in Binjiang Park, Lingao County. In this competition, there are four teams, namely Lingao Team, Haikou Team, Ding ‘an Team and Chengmai Team, who will challenge the men’s nine-a-side volleyball competition.
Cctv newsAccording to the website of the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Education recently issued the "Regulations on the Administration of National Postgraduate Enrollment in 2022" (hereinafter referred to as the "Regulations"), and deployed all enrollment units in various places to co-ordinate the enrollment of postgraduate examinations under the condition of normalization of epidemic prevention and control. The initial test of the 2022 national postgraduate entrance examination is scheduled for December 25-26, 2021, and a few examination subjects that take more than 3 hours or have special requirements such as using sketchpad are scheduled for December 27.
The "Regulations" clarify that the registration of the national postgraduate entrance examination includes two stages: online registration and online confirmation (on-site confirmation). Online registration will be arranged from October 5 to October 25 (9:00— 22:00), the work of forecasting names is arranged from September 24 to September 27 (9:00— 22:00）。 All candidates who take part in the national postgraduate entrance examination shall go through the online registration and online confirmation (on-site confirmation) procedures at their designated entry points in accordance with the provisions of the relevant provincial education entrance examination institutions.
The "Regulations" require further strengthening the standardized management of adjustment work. The basic requirements for the adjustment of candidates are the same as last year. In view of the fact that the preliminary examination subjects of seven majors, such as business administration, public administration, accounting, tourism management, library and information science, engineering management and auditing, are completely consistent, in order to ensure fairness and justice, it is further clarified this year that when candidates transfer between seven majors, on the basis of meeting other transfer conditions, the preliminary examination results must meet the basic requirements of the national preliminary examination results of both transferred majors and transferred majors in the transferred areas.
The "Regulations" emphasize further serious examination of discipline. The majority of candidates are required to consciously establish the awareness of obeying rules and disciplines and honest examinations. During the initial examination, candidates should consciously abide by the "National Postgraduate Entrance Examination Examination Rules" and the examination room discipline of each test center; During the re-examination, candidates should consciously abide by the rules of the examination room of the admissions unit and the "Commitment Letter of Integrity Re-examination" signed by the candidates, and shall not disclose or disseminate the contents of the re-examination questions before the re-examination of the admissions unit is over.
In order to help the majority of candidates fully and accurately understand the postgraduate enrollment policy, the relevant departments of the Ministry of Education will launch the "2022 National Postgraduate Enrollment Publicity and Consultation" activity on the "China Postgraduate Enrollment Information Network" (https://yz.chsi.com.cn, https://yz.chsi.cn) from September 22 to 26, when all postgraduate enrollment units will answer candidates’ questions online.
"Extreme cold waves are more likely to break out."
After the "cliff-like" seasonal cooling during the National Day, a new round of cold air followed after the holiday, bringing strong winds, cooling and rain and snow to the central and eastern regions of China. According to the Central Meteorological Observatory, on the 10th, the impact of cold air was coming to an end. However, there were still moderate to heavy rains and local heavy rains in eastern Jilin and eastern Heilongjiang. There are sleet or small to medium snow in the northeastern part of Liaoning, the eastern mountainous area of Jilin and the southeastern mountainous area of Heilongjiang, and there are heavy snowstorms in the eastern mountainous area of Jilin.
Despite psychological preparation, the temperature drop in early October exceeded expectations, and some areas experienced record-breaking heat and cold overnight in winter. From blowing air conditioners to wearing long trousers, people can’t help wondering: Why did the cold wave come so early this year?
The temperature in many places in the south is "big diving"
On October 2, the Central Meteorological Observatory issued a blue warning of cold wave, which is the earliest cold wave warning issued in the second half of the year since the Central Meteorological Observatory officially launched the early warning release mechanism in 2010. From 14: 00 on October 2 to 20: 00 on October 6, the temperature in most parts of central and eastern China generally dropped by 8 ~ 12℃, and the temperature in central and eastern Inner Mongolia, Northeast China, most of Shaanxi, Huanghuai, Jiang and other places dropped by 12 ~ 16℃, and the local temperature dropped by more than 18℃.
When the cold wave in the north hit and the temperature dropped sharply, most areas in the south were still as hot as midsummer, and they were in the yellow warning of high temperature, with the local temperature reaching above 40℃. 470 national meteorological stations such as Hefei, Nanchang, Changsha and Hangzhou also broke the record of the highest temperature in October. It is understood that this is also the first time in history that two early warnings of high temperature and cold wave have been released at the same time.
When the cold air drives straight, the temperature in many places in the south "dives", and the temperature in some areas such as Anhui, Hubei and Jiangsu even drops by more than 20℃. First, it experienced the hottest in the same period in history, and then it experienced a "seasonal" cooling. Many netizens in the south said that it seemed to be a day from summer to winter.
After the National Day holiday, a new cold air continued to hit, which was accompanied by rain, snowfall and windy weather. From 8th to 10th, a new round of strong cold air will affect the central and eastern regions of China, and the lowest temperature in some northern regions will hit a new low since autumn. In addition to cooling, it also brings strong winds, rainfall and snowfall.
On the 10th, the impact of cold air came to an end, but there was still cooling and rain and snow in the northeast. On the 11th, the lowest temperature in Guangdong fell below 10℃, and the lowest temperature in most parts of the province hit a new low in the second half of the year.
This is a crisp autumn in October, and the cold air continues to exert its strength. Many places in China have "seasonal cooling". Why? Zhang Tao, chief forecaster of the Central Meteorological Observatory, analyzed that in the first half of the National Day holiday, the subtropical high was unusually strong and had a large influence range, and the highest temperature broke the historical extreme value in some parts of the north and south, showing a warmer trend on the whole. Under such circumstances, a strong cold air cut down from the low altitude of the subtropical high from north to south, the ground temperature dropped sharply, and the cold and warm air confronted each other, resulting in rainy weather along the Huaihe River, and the continuous rainy days led to the coldest day in the same period in history.
The recent frequent cold air activities will have an impact on the drought in the Yangtze River basin in China. Peng Jingbei, a senior engineer in lasg, analyzed that, on average, the precipitation in autumn in the Yangtze River basin is less than that in summer. Precipitation often occurs in areas where cold and warm air meet. When the cold and warm air forces are equal, it is easy to have continuous precipitation. However, since October, China has been hit by strong cold air one after another. On October 8-9, windy weather appeared in Beijing and other places, with gusts of 7-9 and local level of 10. Such a strong wind shows that the cold air is strong, and in this case, it is not easy to sustain heavy precipitation in the southern region. "In fact, on October 5-9, the temperature in the Yangtze River basin was more than 4 C lower than normal, but the meteorological drought in the Yangtze River and its south remained."
Will it be colder in winter?
After experiencing the latest high temperature warning and the earliest cold wave warning in history, many netizens are worried that autumn is already very cold, will it be colder this winter and will it experience extreme cold wave?
Earlier in September, the United Nations World Meteorological Organization (WMO) predicted that La Nina, which began in 2020, would last until the end of this year, which would be the first "triple" La Nina phenomenon in the 21st century.
In fact, as early as April-May this year, the Institute of Atmospheric Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences used the scientific apparatus Earth System Simulator to predict that La Nina events will occur for three consecutive years in 2022-2023, and provided accurate prediction and early warning to relevant departments. In the spring and summer of 2022, the sea surface temperature in the tropical Middle East and Pacific Ocean has been in a relatively cold state all the year round, and the coldness has further intensified since autumn. The latest forecast results show that the current La Nina state will continue and develop in autumn and winter in 2022, reaching its peak in winter.
Will the influence of the new round of La Nina be greater than that of the past two rounds? Zheng Fei, a researcher at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, said that it is impossible to judge at present. On the one hand, there are few examples of La Nina events for three consecutive years in history, so it is impossible to give a statistical conclusion; On the other hand, the intensity of this La Nina event will be in the category of moderate intensity, and how to develop and influence China’s climate in the future still needs to be predicted continuously to enhance its credibility.
At the end of September, Xiao Chan, deputy director of the National Climate Center, said at the regular press conference of China Meteorological Bureau that under the background of global warming, the frequency of warm winters has increased since 1986. In the winter after La Nina incident, there were years when the temperature was low. The main characteristics of the abnormal temperature in winter were: the temperature in most parts of the country was lower than normal, especially in northern North China, southern Northeast China, most of southern China, eastern and northern Southwest China, and most of northwest China. After the La Nina incident, the winter precipitation in China mainly shows as follows: a large range of precipitation is less, especially in the eastern part of Northeast China, along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, in the southern part of Southwest China, and in northern Xinjiang. There is more precipitation in the northern part of southwest China and the eastern part of northwest China.
However, Xiao Chan also pointed out that La Nina event is only one of the external forcing factors that affect China’s winter climate. China’s winter climate is also affected by Arctic sea ice, Eurasian snow and other factors, and the natural variability within the atmospheric system also plays an important role. The Meteorological Bureau will strengthen the judgment and provide more detailed forecast opinions in late October.
Zheng Fei believes that under the synergistic influence of La Nina event and the warm Arctic Ocean, the cold air activity in China is likely to continue to be strong this winter, and it is prone to staged low temperature and extreme cold events. At present, based on the warm Arctic sea temperature in the previous period and the possibility of La Nina events in the future, it is predicted that the temperature in some parts of northern China will be slightly lower this winter, which may lead to staged low temperature due to the influence of staged cold air, and the possibility of extreme cold wave outbreak is high; In some parts of the south, there is the possibility of disasters such as low temperature, freezing, rain and snow, so we need to be vigilant and raise our awareness of prevention.
Luo Jingjia, a national distinguished professor of Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, also said in an interview with Modern Express that for East Asia, the winter under the influence of La Nina will be colder. However, the emission of carbon dioxide is increasing, and the degree of coldness may not be so obvious compared with the previous La Ni? a event, which may not cause a very cold winter, but its cooling may be reflected by the occurrence of a cold wave phenomenon. "Therefore, we should pay special attention to the number and intensity of possible cold waves this winter."
Expert: Extreme cold events tend to increase.
In the past summer, there were rare high temperature and heat waves in all parts of the northern hemisphere. Most parts of China are also shrouded in high temperature, and high temperatures above 40 C continue to appear in many places. Global warming, why is there a strong cold wave?
Many experts said that there is no contradiction between strong cold wave and global warming. It is in the context of global warming that the climate is more unstable, with the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as rainstorm, high temperature heat wave, drought and flood in summer, extreme low temperature and cold wave in winter increasing. For example, from December 2020 to January 2021, China suffered from extreme cold waves one after another, resulting in large-scale cooling and extreme low temperatures in many places.
Zhao Liang, a senior engineer in lasg, told China Newsweek that from the statistics of frequency, in the past 20 years, the number of cold wave days in winter in China showed a downward trend as a whole, but there was a great difference in time and space. Spatially, the reduction of cold wave days mainly occurred in the south, but the number of cold wave days in the north, especially in the northeast, did not decrease. In time, the frequency of strong cold waves is more in the first half of winter, and the reduction of cold waves is mainly concentrated in the second half of winter (February).
It is worth noting that since 2008, the average minimum temperature of the coldest winter period in eastern China, that is, the strongest cold wave events every year, is lower than that in the 1980s and 1990s, that is to say, the strong cold wave events have an increasing trend.
Zhao Liang further analyzed that the change characteristics of cold events in China are closely related to the important changes of atmospheric circulation and polar system in the northern hemisphere caused by global warming. Among them, the warming of the Arctic in winter and the cooling of the mid-latitude continent — — That is to say, the warm Arctic-cold continent phenomenon is an important change pattern. This phenomenon has an important connection with the outbreak of extreme cold events in mid-latitudes, including China, especially aggravating the strong cooling events in northern China.
"With the persistence of global climate anomalies, it seems that the extreme cold (cold wave) event in the northern hemisphere in winter has been ‘ Home-cooked meals ’ . But there is great uncertainty about where and when it will happen, "said Yao Yao, an associate researcher at the Institute of Atmospheric Sciences. The continuous increase of greenhouse gases has made the earth warmer and warmer, and the atmosphere on which human beings depend has become increasingly unstable. For the northern hemisphere, polar vortex will become unstable more easily in winter. Under the guidance of favorable atmospheric circulation system, cold air will break through the westerly jet barrier more easily and frequently, and then be transported to middle and low latitudes, causing extremely cold (cold wave) weather.
For the early warning of extreme cold events, Zheng Fei stressed that short-term weather forecast and climate trend forecast for more than two weeks should be strengthened to improve the prevention and early warning of freezing rain and snow disasters. At the same time, agriculture, animal husbandry, energy and transportation industries need to pay close attention to the early warning of freezing rain and snow disasters and formulate effective preventive measures and emergency plans.
In winter, it is often difficult to start a car. If you encounter this situation, you can try to press the accelerator while turning the key to light the fire. This method is very effective, but when the car starts, you should pay attention to loosen the throttle properly, because excessive stepping on the throttle will cause damage to the car. If this method still fails to solve the problem, there may be the following reasons:
1. The battery is short of electricityIt is the most common reason that makes it difficult to start a car in cold weather. The lower the temperature, the lower the battery capacity. Generally speaking, the life of a battery is about 3 years. When the engine is difficult to start, the headlights are dim or the horn sound is unclear, you should check whether the battery is short of electricity.
2. The exhaust pipe is frozen
It is also a common problem. If the car is used less frequently and the route is shorter, the water vapor after engine combustion will freeze in the exhaust pipe, and short-distance driving is not enough to melt it. After a night, there will be more ice, which will affect the starting and exhaust of the vehicle.
3. Poor performance of engine oil or incorrect selection.
It may also lead to difficulties in starting the car. In winter, the viscosity of engine oil increases greatly, which leads to the increase of internal resistance of engine. Therefore, low viscosity engine oil should be used to cope with the cold weather in winter.
Note that the above method is only applicable to the situation that the car is difficult to start. If the problem still exists, please contact professional car maintenance personnel for inspection and maintenance.